Document Type

Original Article


Background: Hormonal contraceptives that involve steroids have a high success rate and are commonly used. The use of these contraceptives has both positive and negative effects on health, including bone health. Some contraceptives may interfere with peak bone acquisition or may induce early bone mineral density (BMD) loss since they are provided for extended durations and at a time of life when many women have not yet reached the peak of bone development. Aim of the study: to assess the effect of long term utilization of hormonal contraceptives (Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), Implanon, Combined Oral Contraceptives (COC)) ( > 3years) among premenopausal women aged (28-40 yrs.) on bone mineral density (BMD). Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross section study was conducted on 70 female of out-patient who attended family planning clinics of Al zhraa university hospital & El Mahmoudeya Central Hospital during the period from March 2021 to October 2021. Results: there was a statistically significant difference regarding Bone pain & Duration of contraception and T-Score among studied groups except in the Forearm. There was No statistically significant difference among all studied groups regarding Demographic data, patient’s classification, patient’s parity, Diet (Milk, Cottage cheese) and Sun exposure. Conclusion: BMD is reduced in females using DMPA and Implanon contraception for Long-term duration and may be associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis, no significant changes of BMD were seen in women using Combined Oral Contraceptives.


Hormonal Contraception; Bone mineral density; DXA Scan.

Subject Area

Obstetrics and Gynecology